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Last Updated on 28/11/2023

Turkey, with its unique geographic location straddling Europe and Asia, boasts a robust and multifaceted business ecosystem. Over the years, this transcontinental nation has witnessed significant economic growth, making it an attractive destination for both domestic and international investors. Whether you’re an aspiring entrepreneur looking to start a business in Turkey or simply curious about the country’s diverse corporate landscape, this article will provide you with a detailed exploration of the various types of companies in Turkey. 

Sole Proprietorship:

companies in Turkey

A sole proprietorship is the most straightforward type of companies in Turkey. Besides, it is owned and operated by a single individual who assumes full control and responsibility. While this structure offers ease of setup and management, it also comes with a significant drawback – the owner is personally liable for all business debts and obligations. 

Partnership Collaboration and Shared Responsibility

partnership companies in Turkey

Partnerships are businesses that thrive on collaboration, bringing together two or more individuals with shared goals. In fact, there are two primary types of partnerships i Turkey:

General Partnership (Ortaklık) 

In a general partnership, all partners share equal responsibility for the company’s debts and profits. Moreover, these types of companies in Turkey  encourage cooperation and collective decision-making among partners, making it ideal for ventures based on trust and mutual understanding.

 Limited Partnership (Komandit Ortaklık)

In contrast, a limited partnership comprises both general partners and limited partners. Thus, general partners are fully involved in the company’s management and bear unlimited personal liability for its debts. Limited partners, on the other hand, enjoy limited liability and typically do not participate in the company’s day-to-day operations.


Limited Liability Company (LLC) (Limited Şirket) 

Limited liability company in Tukey

The Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a highly popular choice for businesses in Turkey, especially small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This structure combines the simplicity of a sole proprietorship with the limited liability protection of a corporation. To establish an LLC, you need at least one shareholder, and the liability of shareholders is limited to their capital contributions, safeguarding their personal assets.

Joint Stock Company (JSC) (Anonim Şirket) 

For larger enterprises seeking substantial capital investment, a Joint Stock Company (JSC) is the preferred choice. These types of companies in Turkey is Similar to a corporation in other countries, a JSC  which requires a minimum of five shareholders. The liability of shareholders is confined to their shareholdings, making it an attractive option for investors looking to mitigate personal risk while participating in corporate ventures.

Cooperative (Kooperatif) 

This is one of the most popular types of companies in Turkey. Cooperatives are formed by individuals or businesses that share common interests and pool their resources to achieve specific goals. This type of company is prevalent in sectors like agriculture and production, where collective efforts enhance efficiency and competitiveness.

Branch Office (Şube)

Local Presence Foreign companies eyeing the Turkish market can establish these types of companies in Turkey to extend their reach. While the parent company retains full control, the branch office operates under Turkish law. Compliance with local regulations and tax requirements is paramount when setting up a branch office to ensure seamless operations.

Representative Office (Temsilcilik)

As one of the popular types of companies in Turkey, a representative office serves as an exploratory outpost for foreign companies. It looks to conduct market research and promotional activities in Turkey. However, it cannot engage in commercial activities or generate income. It serves as a valuable first step for companies evaluating the Turkish market’s potential before making a significant commitment.

 Franchise : Replicating 

Franchise businesses are among types of companies in Turkey that have gained immense popularity. They offer entrepreneurs the opportunity to operate a business with a proven brand and business model. Its agreements enable the replication of successful businesses, reducing some of the risks associated with starting a new venture from scratch.

different types of companies in Turkey

Joint Ventures (Ortak Girişim) 

It is one of the types of companies in Turkey that ensure pooling resources for mutual benefit. Joint ventures are collaborative endeavors involving two or more companies partnering on a specific project or venture. This type of partnership is common for large-scale projects requiring diverse expertise and substantial resources. Joint ventures enable companies to share risks and rewards while leveraging each other’s strengths.


Turkey’s dynamic and diverse economy provides a plethora of options when it comes to choosing the right sector of investment but also the right types of companies in Turkey for your business venture. Your decision should be based on various factors, including the size and nature of your enterprise, available investment capital, and liability considerations. It’s essential to seek guidance from legal and financial experts who can offer tailored advice to meet your specific needs and goals.

By gaining a deep understanding of the types of companies available in Turkey, you can confidently navigate the business landscape and make informed decisions to set you on the path to entrepreneurial success in this thriving market. Embrace the opportunities and challenges that Turkey presents, and you’ll be well on your way to establishing a flourishing business in this unique and dynamic part of the world.

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